Tuesday 26th jan

Word’s characters are expressed through visual language.

One should think about shapes and spaces. Negative shapes around and in the letters are significant.

Kerning is the space between each letter in a word. Normally each letter is the same distance as the next but Illustrator and other programs automatically kerns type and pulls it together a bit because of the spacing challenges that sometimes come like a combination of ‘Ty’. One should think carefully about kerning if only displaying one big word.

Lower case letters are easier to read due to the ascenders and descenders.

The FedEx logo uses kerning to create an arrow within the type spaces.


Typeface and font is not the same thing.

Typeface is the name given to a particular language of a typeface.

The font is a specific font that has it’s own name. It is a form of a typeface.

Ligatures are the combination of letters especially in serif typefaces.


Screenshot 2016-01-27 20.27.45

Higher case numbers; proportional lining

Lower case numbers; proportional old style has descenders and ascenders.

Tabular lining creates same widths for each letter without ascenders and descenders.

Tabular old style also has the same widths but also has ascenders and descenders.

Tabular numbers work best in tables although they look a bit clunky in type.
We also learned that:

Speech quotation marks are usually curved.

Primes and double primes are straight apostrophes and indicate feet and inches and should not be used in type.


And two more tips I got from a classmate:
Don’t have more than 12 words in one line.

Don’t leave a single word at the top or bottom of a text. “orphan”


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